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Electronic Tongue Accurately Distinguishes Lager Beers

Electronic Tongue Accurately Distinguishes Lager Beers

Sensory robots may be the answer the food industry’s quality challenges

An electronic tongue can identify different types of lager beer.

Beer companies may want to take note of an electronic tongue that was invented to accurately identify four different styles of lager beer, according to Science 2.0.

This electronic tasting device was created at the University of Valladolid in Spain by María Luz Rodríguez-Méndez, a professor of inorganic chemistry, and a group of colleagues to improve quality control in the food industry. However, “Humans are still better,” Méndez says. “At least for now, they are far from being replaced.”

With the ability to distinguish between the different concentrations of polyphenols, the electronic tongue can pick up on ingredients, such as barley and hops, which could be helpful if you need help ordering beer. The lager styles tested included non-alcoholic, pilsners, doppelbock, and European strong lager.

Just like a human tongue, this electronic tongue uses sensors to transmit signals that analyze taste. The sensors create electrical patterns to differentiate flavors. It is portable, with four electrodes made of varying materials. "These systems are complicated and though they are improving little by little... they are still very far from human senses," Méndez says.

Electronic tongues may very well be the answer to quality control in the food industry, and, if mass-produced, beer companies and consumers could be assured that the beer they are drinking is made right every time.


Electronic tongue succeeds in beer identification

The device used in the experiment consisted of 21 ion-selective electrodes capable of detecting chemical elements including sodium, ammonium, chloride and nitrate.

"The electronic tongue uses a generic array of sensors with generic response to various chemical compounds involved,” said Manel del Valle from the University of Barcelona, the main author of the study published in the journal Food Chemistry. “The device generates a varied spectrum of information with advanced tools for processing, pattern recognition and even artificial neural networks."

The authors recorded the multidimensional response generated by the array of sensors and analysed how the spectrum was influenced by the type of beer considered.

"Using more powerful tools - supervised learning - and linear discriminant analysis enabled us to distinguish between the main categories of beer we studied: Schwarzbier, lager, double malt, Pilsen, Alsatian and low-alcohol, and with a success rate of 81.9 per cent," Del Valle said.

The system only recognised brands for which it was previously ‘trained’, failing to correctly pick out beer-soft drink mixes or foreign makes. The tongue also wasn’t able to detect the amount of alcohol content in given beer samples.

"This application could be considered a sensor by software, as the ethanol present does not respond directly to the sensors used, which only respond to the ions present in the solution," explained Del Valle.

In the future, the researchers believe, electronic tongues could provide robots with a sense of taste, possibly enabling them to become extremely accurate food industry testers.

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Electronic Tongue Accurately Distinguishes Lager Beers - Recipes

By Lisa Marie Potter (Inside Science) -- Machines mimicking a human's sense of taste are going on a beer-tasting binge. Despite being called electronic tongues, these devices aren't party robots, pouring beer onto wagging, mechanical tongues.

"It's just a bunch of wires and buttons and computers," said María Luz Rodríguez-Méndez, a professor of inorganic chemistry at University of Valladolid in Spain. "It's an ugly thing full of cables."

However it looks, Méndez and colleagues developed an electronic tongue that accurately distinguished between four styles of lager beer 100 percent of the time. A variety of screen-printed sensors "taste" electrochemical compounds in the beer to predict the brews' color index and alcoholic strength 76 percent and 86 percent of the time. The new robot taster contributes to a growing field of electronic tongue and nose development meant to improve quality control in the food industry.

One potential application of electronic tongues is to help the industry produce their signature drinks more efficiently, said Manuel del Valle , a professor of chemistry at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain. Anheuser-Busch, for example, probably wants to make sure that every bottle of Bud Light tastes the same before it hits grocery and liquor store coolers. This means that one expert must always test the beer before it leaves the factory.

"But your experts don't work at 3 a.m. and they don't work on Sunday," said del Valle. Electronic sensors could share a supporting role by continuing to check the beer while the brewmasters are sleeping.

"Humans are still better," said Méndez, co-author of the study published last month in the Journal of Food Engineering. "At least for now, they are far from being replaced."

Which is why the researchers designed the device to function like the human taste system, said Méndez. When we eat, sensors nestled in the taste buds react to molecules in the food and send the appropriate signals to the brain: sweet, savory, bitter and so on. The electrochemical patterns of those signals register in the brain as flavors. All receptors respond every time we take a bite — we don't have specific sensors for different tastes.

"Since you are a little baby, you train your brain and sensors so your brain learns that this taste is from a banana, this taste is from coffee," explained Méndez. You compare sensory response patterns for every mouthful of food, "then you decide it's a banana because you've tasted it before."

The study's electronic tongue emulates a simpler version of this process. The screen-printed electrodes, made by the company DropSens , have an array of sensors that send signals to software — the "brain" — that analyzes the response patterns.

The device is portable — about the size of two cigarette packs, said Méndez. There are four electrodes, each made from a different material. These detect polyphenols, antioxidants produced by the grains and ingredients that ferment into beer, such as barley and hops. Phenols give beer its bitter taste, determine its golden color and conduct electricity. The electronic tongue distinguishes between lagers by detecting the different concentrations of polyphenols.

A beer is classified as a lager based on the type of yeast and a low fermentation temperature. There are a variety of lager styles depending on certain characteristics, such as color and alcohol content. Méndez and her colleagues tested the electronic tongue on 25 types of commercial beer across four lager styles. The researchers chose the styles based on their distinct alcohol strength and the European Beer Convention color value. The four styles were alcohol-free beer, which has low polyphenol levels Pilsners which have a light yellow to golden color doppelbock, which is a dark brown, malty lager and European strong lager, a European version of malt liquor.

The researchers taught the software to recognize the signal patterns for each of the four lager styles. Like our brain, the computer can then compare new beer samples against the established, learned signal patterns. They tested each of the 25 beer samples seven times.

Many existing tongues using an array of sensors only get one data point for each sensor, said Méndez.

"But we have curves for each sensor."

The non-specific electrodes are responsible for their wealth of data. The phenols and electrodes send electrochemical signals to the computer as they interact. The researchers immerse the electrodes in beer and track the electrochemical signals as they turn up the voltage, said Méndez. Each sensor makes distinct electrical patterns because each is made from a different material. After analyzing the data with two pattern-recognition models, the electronic tongue was able to place the commercial beer sample into the correct lager category with 100 percent accuracy. It also predicted the beer's color with 76 percent accuracy, and its alcohol content with 84 percent accuracy.

"Their sensors generate one vector of, say, 100 numbers," said del Valle . He published a paper last year describing his lab's electronic tongue that used an array of specific electrodes, which correctly identified between lager styles 82 percent of the time.

"We use a larger number of sensors related to ions but got poorer information. [These researchers] use less sensors, but is richer in information they generate," said del Valle. He was not involved in the study.

The next steps for Méndez and her team will be modifying the commercial screen-printed electrodes with nanoparticles to make the sensors respond more clearly, she said. "These systems are complicated and though they are improving little by little … they are still very far from human senses," she said.


Beer tasting with a robotic twist: Electronic 'tongue' can distinguish different brews

PARIS ( AFP ) -- Spanish researchers have created an electronic "tongue" capable of distinguishing between beer varieties and their alcohol content.

The artificial organ was accurate nearly 82 per cent of the time, said its creators, suggesting it could be the first step toward developing robots with a sense of taste.

The taster was made using 21 electrodes, each responsive to different chemical compounds such as ammonium, sodium, nitrate or chloride, according to researchers from the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

Exposed to beer, the electrode bundle yielded chemical data that could be analyzed for patterns with which to identify the different brews.

It could tell the difference between Schwarzbier, lager, double malt, Pilsen, Alsatian and low-alcohol beer -- all the types it was "trained" to recognize.

The "tongue" did not recognize drinks for which it had not been programmed.

"These tools could one day give robots a sense of taste," said a statement on the study published in the journal Food Chemistry.

They could also "supplant panels of tasters in the food industry to improve the quality and reliability of products for consumption."


Electronic tongue with taste for beer

SPANISH researchers have created an electronic &quottongue&quot capable of distinguishing between beer varieties and their alcohol content.

Tongue tasting . This tongue from the famous Tooheys Extra Dry commercial could distinguish beers. Now there is a robot that can do the same. Source:Supplied

SPANISH researchers have created an electronic &quottongue&quot capable of distinguishing between beer varieties and their alcohol content.

The artificial organ was accurate nearly 82 per cent of the time, said its creators - and could be the first step towards developing robots with a sense of taste.

The taster was made using 21 electrodes, each responsive to different chemical compounds such as ammonium, sodium, nitrate or chloride, according to researchers from the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

Exposed to beer, the electrode bundle yielded chemical data that could be analysed for patterns with which to identify the different brews.

It could tell the difference between Schwarzbier, lager, double malt, Pilsen, Alsatian and low-alcohol beer - all the types it was "trained" to recognise.

The "tongue" did not recognise drinks for which it had not been programmed.

The story makes it hard not to think of the Tooheys Extra Dry commercial where a man&aposs tongue leaps out of his mouth and goes to find a beer to bring back to him.

"These tools could one day give robots a sense of taste," said a statement on the study published in the journal Food Chemistry.

They could also "supplant panels of tasters in the food industry to improve the quality and reliability of products for consumption."


Fermentability of carapils

Okay, not sure if this is the right place to ask this, but.

I have brewed two batches of my light beer (lawnmower style), but ran into an interesting question when I went to get the ingredients.

I had dropped a 3.3lb can of pilsen LME, a 1lb bag of carapils and a 1lb bag of munich on the counter along with some cascade hops. The owner of the LHBS said "that isn't the only thing in your beer, right? you do have more fermentables than the LME, don't you?" I responded by saying I had an additional 1/2lb of carapils at home for the recipe. He laughed, and said that carapils was completely unfermentable, and that whatever software I was using was wrong. I ended up adding an additional 1lb of pilsen DME and a 1/2lb more munich (long story. ) and ended up with an almost light version of Sierra Nevada. Wow, sometimes brewday cowboy-ism works.

So. is Carapils fermentable or not? I am trying to get to a very light (3.8%) session beer that can be my go-to during the week. Not everyone can hit the 8-9% every night of the week!

DannyD

Well-Known Member

Bonzombiekitty

Well-Known Member

Carapils produces dextrin, which is an unfermentable sugar and is used to add body to the beer. While there is probably some fermentable sugar that it adds, it's not the major contributor. AFAIK all the "Cara" malts are malted in a way to produce dextrine.

Dwarven_stout

Well-Known Member

That said, the common wisdom is that Cara-pils/foam/hell have very little fermentable sugar in them. I don't know if any homebrewers have explicitly tested the fermentability.

Jsmith82

Well-Known Member

Just doing a little bit of google-fu, I found the following site:

It lists fermentable and non fermentable grains along with a solid description of each. Cara-pils is noted as non fermentable with the following description:

I also stumbled across an old HBT topic here that has a pretty good description about carapils and why it is not fermentable:

Supporting Member

Yes, the software you used is/was wrong. That was the reason why I decided to build my own excel brewing tool so I can assign whatever "fermentability" I want per grain, in this case, 0% for carapills, dextrin powder, lactose. I'm not sure if any brewing software today let you do that.
Although the fermentability of carapills is known to be very low to none, I believe this has been passed along from brewer to brewer without a real proven test.
That may change as I may just test that, as I proposed on this post below where I brew tested the fermentability of crystal malt. If I do, I'll report back.
Anyways, given the low amount of carapills usually added to recipes and the other "factors" that affect fermentability of a wort, it is very hard to use regular recipes to make any conclusions. Right now, I use it as 0% fermentable in my tool.

DannyD

Well-Known Member

That said, the common wisdom is that Cara-pils/foam/hell have very little fermentable sugar in them. I don't know if any homebrewers have explicitly tested the fermentability.

BrewerinBR

Well-Known Member

EDIT: If you steep it you get the dextrins. However if you mash it with base malt that has good enzymes then those enzymes will break down some fermentables from the Carapils.

Supporting Member

Yes, it stated that carapills has un-fermentables, but doesn't say how much, 100%, 80%?
The malt analysis suggest very low fermentables (100% glassy).

TYPICAL ANALYSIS
Mealy / Half / Glassy . 0% / 0% / 100%

Banesong

Middle Ground Brewing Company

Dwarven_stout

Well-Known Member

Banesong

Middle Ground Brewing Company
Well-Known Member

A recent paper on fermentability:

Impact of dark specialty malts on extract composition and wort fermentation
Author(s): Coghe, S (Coghe, S) D'Hollander, W (D'Hollander, W) Verachtert, H (Verachtert, H) Delvaux, FR (Delvaux, FR)
Source: JOURNAL OF THE INSTITUTE OF BREWING Volume: 111 Issue: 1 Pages: 51-60 Published: 2005

Abstract: Dark specialty malts are important ingredients for the production of several beer styles. These malts not only impart colour, flavour and antioxidative activity to wort and beer, they also affect the course of wort fermentations and the production of flavour-active yeast metabolites. The application of considerable levels of dark malt was found to lower the attenuation, mainly as a result of lower levels of fermentable sugars and amino acids in dark wort samples. In fact, from the darkest caramel malts and from roasted malts, practically no fermentable material can be hydrolysed by pilsner malt enzymes during mashing. Compared to wort brewed with 50% pilsner malt and 50% dark caramel malt or roasted malt, wort brewed with 100% pilsner malt contained nearly twice as much fermentable sugars and amino acids. Reduced levels of yeast nutrients also lowered the fermentation rate, ranging from 1.7 degrees P/day for the reference pilsner wort of 9 EBC to 1.1 degrees P/day for the darkest wort (890 EBC units), brewed with 50% roasted malt. This additionally indicates that lower attenuation values for dark wort are partially due to the inhibitory effects of Maillard compounds on yeast metabolism. The application of dark caramel or roasted malts further led to elevated levels of the vicinal diketones diacetyl and 2,3-pentane-dione. Only large levels of roasted malt gave rise to two significant diacetyl peaks during fermentation. The level of ethyl acetate in beer was inversely related to colour, whereas the level of isoamyl acetate appeared to be affected by the use of roasted malt. With large levels of this malt type, negligible isoamyl acetate was generated during fermentation.
=================

Two papers that cited the above paper. I get a hoot out of the title
of the second one:

Population Size Drives Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alcoholic Fermentation and Is under Genetic Control
Author(s): Albertin, W (Albertin, Warren)2,3 Marullo, P (Marullo, Philippe)3,4 Aigle, M (Aigle, Michel)5 Dillmann, C (Dillmann, Christine)1 de Vienne, D (de Vienne, Dominique)1 Bely, M (Bely, Marina)3 Sicard, D (Sicard, Delphine)1

Source: APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Volume: 77 Issue: 8 Pages: 2772-2784 DOI: 10.1128/AEM.02547-10 Published: APR 2011


Abstract: Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement.


Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue
Author(s): Rudnitskaya, A (Rudnitskaya, Alisa)1,2 Polshin, E (Polshin, Evgeny)2,3 Kirsanov, D (Kirsanov, Dmitry)2 Lammertyn, J (Lammertyn, Jeroen)3 Nicolai, B (Nicolai, Bart)3 Saison, D (Saison, Daan)4 Delvaux, FR (Delvaux, Freddy R.)4 Delvaux, F (Delvaux, Filip)4 Legin, A (Legin, Andrey)2

Source: ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA Volume: 646 Issue: 1-2 Pages: 111-118 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2009.05.008 Published: JUL 30 2009


Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers. ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.


RELATED ARTICLES

Now, scientists at the Autonomous University of Barcelona have led a study which analysed several brands of beer by applying a new concept in analysis systems, known as an electronic tongue, the idea for which is based on the human sense of taste.

'The concept of the electronic tongue consists in using a generic array of sensors, in other words with generic response to the various chemical compounds involved, which generate a varied spectrum of information with advanced tools for processing, pattern recognition and even artificial neural networks,' said Manel del Valle, the main author of the study.

The array of sensors was formed of 21 ion-selective electrodes, including some with response to cations (ammonium, sodium), others with response to anions (nitrate, chloride, etc.), as well as electrodes with generic (unspecified) response to the varieties considered.

The electronic beer tester: Spanish researchers have managed to distinguish between different varieties of beer using an electronic tongue. The discovery, published in the journal 'Food Chemistry', is accurate in almost 82 percent of cases.

The machine then 'learnt' to taste the different varieties.

'Using more powerful tools – supervised learning – and linear discriminant analysis did enable us to distinguish between the main categories of beer we studied: Schwarzbier, lager, double malt, Pilsen, Alsatian and low-alcohol,' Del Valle said.

The study concluded that these tools could one day give robots a sense of taste, and even supplant panels of tasters in the food industry to improve the quality and reliability of products for consumption.

The breakthrough is expected to be used by the brewing industry to supplement human beer tasters


This Beer-Sampling Robot Tongue Can Tell a Coors from a Guinness

Watch out, Gordon Ramsay. Gustation might seem like one of those things that&aposs so thoroughly human that it&aposd be difficult to replace with machines, but robots might be coming for our taste buds sometime soon. Researchers at the Autonomous University of Barcelona recently developed an "electronic tongue" that was able to successfully distinguish between different kinds of beer.

The tongue wasn&apost perfectly discerning,਋ut it managed to accurately identify the different kinds of beer sampled in 81.9 percent of the tests. Manel del Valle, the main author of the study that was published in the journal Food Chemistry, explained in a recent interview with SINC, that researchers were able to achieve these impressive results by trying to emulate the human tongue as best they could.

"The concept of the electronic tongue consists in using a generic array of sensors, in other words with generic response to the various chemical compounds involved, which generate a varied spectrum of information with advanced tools for processing, pattern recognition and even artificial neural networks," del Valle said.

This boiled down to bundling together different sensors to detect key chemical ingredients like ammonium, sodium and chloride, and compare the ratios between them. Ultimately, it was able to distinguish between several "main categories" of the booze: Schwarzbier, lager, double malt, Pilsen, Alsatian and low-alcohol beers. The team added that the tongue would need to more training before it could to recognize other kinds of beer or non-alcoholic beverages.

This isn&apost the first time that scientists have used mechanical versions of body parts to analyze food. The study therefore concluded that the tools discovered could eventually give robots a legitimate sense of taste. Back in 2004, researchers at the University of Milan in Italy used a similar tongue that was paired with an electronic nose to judge four different types of wine.

Taken together, these raise a compelling possibility: will robots soon be able to taste for themselves? And once (or if) they can, will they immediately be disgusted by the realization that we consume things like Soylent? The Food Chemistry article ends with a number of possible applications such as placing tongue-waggling robots along different points of the food production line to monitor for safety and quality assurance.

If the technology is ultimately applied in such a way, however, future applications become more a question of refinement and precision than of actual ability. It wouldn&apost be too far off to imagine additional applications all throughout bars and restaurants as well. I mean, robots can already flip burgers. How soon will they be able to recommend a pint to go with it?

I guess we can add "bartender" and "celebrity chef" to the list of jobs that robots are going to be coming for. Or maybe once they realize how great booze tastes, our computer overlords will all just descend into alcoholism.

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